Dr Caroline Leroux, DR2 INRAE

DR2 (Director of Research, tenure position) INRAE PhD in Virology, HDR (Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches), Lyon 1 University


Trained at the Lyon 1 University, I got my PhD in virology for my work on small ruminant lentiviruses.

I then joined Pr Ronald C Montelaro' lab at the university of Pittsburgh as a senior research associate for over 3 years in USA. I worked on the molecular evolution of the EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) in equids during disease progression and on the compartmentalization of HIV quasispecies in infected men.

I got back to Lyon to start my own research group on retrovirus, evolution and cancer. I joined INRA (National Institute of Agronomical Research) in 2002.

I developed my expertise on animal retroviruses and the associated mechanisms leading to the development and progression of the diseases. In this context, I work on several retrovirus in large farm animals such as SRLV (Small Ruminant LentiViruses) in sheep and goats, EIAV (Equine infectious anemia virus) in equids and JSRV (Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus) in sheep.

I focused most of my work on lung diseases. My main interest is to understand the interactions between retroviruses and host cells during disease establishment and progression.  Over the last years, I developed several research projects on cancer induced by retrovirus in sheep and goats but also on non-virally induced rare cancers in humans. I had the chance to develop my group close to the clinic, thanks to my colleagues working in human and Veterinary medicine. I particularly appreciate conducting projects at the frontiers of basic research and human or veterinary medicine. 

I actually develop and supervise projects on nasal and lung cancers induced by oncogenic β retrovirus, EIAV, and rare thoracic tumors in humans. 


See also

  1. Chebib N, Archer F, Bobet-Erny A, Leroux C, Cottin V. 2018. Dysregulation of the endothelin pathway in lymphangioleiomyomatosis with no direct effect on cell proliferation and migration. Sci Rep 8:14698.
  2. Sid, N., N. El Houda Belalmi, L. Benhamza, S. Ouhida, M. Zebiri, A. Aydoğan, and C. Leroux. 2018. First case report of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in "Ouled Djellal"ewe in Algeria. Open Veterinary Journal 8:9-12. http://www.openveterinaryjournal.com/OVJ-2017-07-134%20Sid%20et%20al.pdf
  3. Maury, J. M., N. Girard, M. Tabutin, R. Grima, L. Chalabreysse, I. Pavlakovic, A. Sayag-Beaujard, C. Leroux, P. J. Souquet, O. Glehen, and F. Tronc. 2017. Intra-Thoracic Chemo-Hyperthermia for pleural recurrence of thymoma. Lung Cancer 108:1-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28625619
  4. Gomes, M., F. Archer, N. Girard, B. Gineys, C. Dolmazon, A. Bobet Erny, J. F. Mornex, and C. Leroux. 2017. Blocked expression of key genes of the angiogenic pathway in JSRV-induced pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Vet Res 48:76.
  5. Cadore, J. L., A. Tortereau, S. Belluco, E. Segard, and C. Leroux. 2017. Guttural pouch mycosis in horses: An intriguing and mysterious disease. Equine Vet Educ in press.
  6. Leroux, C., and R. F. Cook. 2016. Equine infectious anaemia virus, p. 177-189. In D. Liu (ed.), Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens. CRC Press.
  7. Chebib, N., C. Khouatra, R. Lazor, F. Archer, C. Leroux, D. Gamondes, F. Thivolet-Bejui, J. F. Cordier, and V. Cottin. 2016. [Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: From pathogenesis to management]. Rev Mal Respir 33:718-734.
  8. Bonnefont-Rebeix, C., C. Fournel-Fleury, F. Ponce, S. Belluco, D. Watrelot, S. E. Bouteille, S. Rapiteau, D. Razanajaona-Doll, J. J. Pin, C. Leroux, and T. Marchal. 2016. Characterization of a novel canine T-cell line established from a spontaneously occurring aggressive T-cell lymphoma with large granular cell morphology. Immunobiology 221:12-22.
  9. Bolfa, P., F. Barbuceanu, S. E. Leau, and C. Leroux. 2016. Equine infectious anaemia in Europe: Time to re-examine the efficacy of monitoring and control protocols? Equine Vet J 48:140-142.
  10. Monot, M., A. Erny, B. Gineys, S. Desloire, C. Dolmazon, A. Aublin-Gex, V. Lotteau, F. Archer, and C. Leroux. 2015. Early Steps of Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus-Mediated Cell Transformation Involve the Interaction between Env and the RALBP1 Cellular Protein. J Virol 89:8462-8473.
  11. Monot, M., F. Archer, M. Gomes, J. F. Mornex, and C. Leroux. 2015. Advances in the study of transmissible respiratory tumours in small ruminants. Vet Microbiol 181:170-177.
  12. Cook, R. F., C. Leroux, and C. J. Issel. 2013. Equine infectious anemia and equine infectious anemia virus in 2013: a review. Vet Microbiol 167:181-204.
  13. Bolfa, P., M. Nolf, J. L. Cadore, C. Catoi, F. Archer, C. Dolmazon, J. F. Mornex, and C. Leroux. 2013. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses. Vet Res 44:113.
  14. Archer, F., A. Abi-Rizk, S. Desloire, C. Dolmazon, B. Gineys, F. Guiguen, V. Cottin, J. F. Mornex, and C. Leroux. 2013. Lung progenitors from lambs can differentiate into specialized alveolar or bronchiolar epithelial cells. BMC Vet Res 9:224.
  15. Viginier, B., C. Dolmazon, I. Lantier, F. Lantier, F. Archer, C. Leroux, and C. Terzian. 2012. Copy Number Variation and Differential Expression of a Protective Endogenous Retrovirus in Sheep. PLos ONE 7:e41965.
  16. Lutringer-Magnin, D., N. Girard, J. Cadranel, C. Leroux, E. Quoix, V. Cottin, C. D. Signore, M. P. Lebitasy, G. Cordier, P. Vanhems, and J. F. Mornex. 2012. Professional Exposure to Goats Increases the Risk of Pneumonic-Type Lung Adenocarcinoma: Results of the IFCT-0504-Epidemio Study. PLos ONE 7:e37889.
  17. Bolfa, P. F., C. Leroux, A. Pintea, S. Andrei, C. Catoi, M. Taulescu, F. Tabaran, and M. Spinu. 2012. Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in horses infected with equine infectious anaemia virus. Vet J 192:449-454.
  18. Archer, F., J. F. Mornex, and C. Leroux. 2012. Interplay between JSRV, an oncogenic retrovirus, and the pulmonary epithelium. Current Immunology Reviews 7:209-215.
  19. Cottin, V., F. Archer, C. Leroux, J. F. Mornex, and J. F. Cordier. 2011. Milestones in lymphangioleiomyomatosis research. Eur Respir Rev 20:3-6.
  20. Leroux, C., J. C. Cruz, and J. F. Mornex. 2010. SRLVs: a genetic continuum of lentiviral species in sheep and goats with cumulative evidence of cross species transmission. Curr HIV Res 8:94-100.
  21. Leroux, C., and J. F. Mornex. 2008. Retroviral infections in sheep and the associated diseases. Small Rumin Res 76:68-76.
  22. Kaufmann, C., M. Brechbuhl, A. Oevermann, S. Muller, K. Zimmer, M. Schonmann, C. Leroux, D. Weibel, and G. Bertoni. 2008. [Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in a dairy sheep flock]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 150:297-302.
  23. Erhouma, E., F. Guiguen, Y. Chebloune, D. Gauthier, L. M. Lakhal, T. Greenland, J. F. Mornex, C. Leroux, and T. Alogninouwa. 2008. Small ruminant lentivirus proviral sequences from wild ibexes in contact with domestic goats. J Gen Virol 89:1478-1484.
  24. Varela, M., M. Golder, F. Archer, M. de Las Heras, C. Leroux, and M. Palmarini. 2007. A large animal model to evaluate the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. Virology 371:206-215.
  25. Leroux, C., N. Girard, V. Cottin, T. Greenland, J. F. Mornex, and F. Archer. 2007. Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus (JSRV): from virus to lung cancer in sheep. Vet Res 38:211-228.
  26. Bonnefont-Rebeix, C., T. Marchal, J. Bernaud, J. J. Pin, C. Leroux, S. Lebecque, L. Chabanne, and D. Rigal. 2007. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3): A new marker of canine monocytes-derived dendritic cells (cMo-DC). Vet Immunol Immunopathol 118:134-139.
  27. Boissin-Quillon, A., D. Piau, and C. Leroux. 2007. In silico segmentations of lentivirus envelope sequences. BMC Bioinformatics 8:99.
  28. Archer, F., E. Jacquier, M. Lyon, J. Chastang, V. Cottin, J. F. Mornex, and C. Leroux. 2007. Alveolar type II cells isolated from pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a model for JSRV expression in vitro. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 36:534-540.
  29. Suau, F., N. Girard, F. Archer, V. Cottin, S. Croze, J. F. Mornex, and C. Leroux. 2006. JSRV (jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus) et cancer du poumon associé chez le mouton. Virologie 10:287-299.
  30. Suau, F., V. Cottin, F. Archer, S. Croze, J. Chastang, G. Cordier, F. Thivolet-Bejui, J. F. Mornex, and C. Leroux. 2006. Telomerase activation in a model of lung adenocarcinoma. Eur Respir J 27:1175-1182.
  31. Craigo, J. K., T. J. Sturgeon, S. J. Cook, C. J. Issel, C. Leroux, and R. C. Montelaro. 2006. Apparent elimination of EIAV ancestral species in a long-term inapparent carrier. Virology 344:340-353.
  32. Leroux, C., R. C. Montelaro, E. Sublime, and J. L. Cadore. 2005. EIAV (equine infectious anemia virus): mieux comprendre la pathogénèse des infections lentivirales. Virologie 9:289-300.
  33. Salaun, B., B. de Saint-Vis, N. Pacheco, Y. Pacheco, A. Riesler, S. Isaac, C. Leroux, V. Clair-Moninot, J. J. Pin, J. Griffith, I. Treilleux, S. Goddard, J. Davoust, M. Kleijmeer, and S. Lebecque. 2004. CD208/dendritic cell-lysosomal associated membrane protein is a marker of normal and transformed type II pneumocytes. Am J Pathol 164:861-871.
  34. Leroux, C., J. L. Cadore, and R. C. Montelaro. 2004. Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV): what has HIV's country cousin got to tell us? Vet Res 35:485-512.
  35. Chalabreysse, L., C. Leroux, J. F. Obadia, T. Greenland, F. Thivolet-Bejui, and J. F. Mornex. 2004. Apoptosis in right-ventricle biopsy is not predictive of graft survival. Transpl Int 17:362-365.
  36. Mornex, J. F., F. Thivolet, M. De las Heras, and C. Leroux. 2003. Pathology of human bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and its relationship to the ovine disease. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 275:225-248.
  37. DeMartini, J. C., J. O. Carlson, C. Leroux, T. Spencer, and M. Palmarini. 2003. Endogenous retroviruses related to jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 275:117-137.
  38. Cook, R. F., S. J. Cook, S. L. Berger, C. Leroux, N. N. Ghabrial, M. Gantz, P. S. Bolin, M. R. Mousel, R. C. Montelaro, and C. J. Issel. 2003. Enhancement of equine infectious anemia virus virulence by identification and removal of suboptimal nucleotides. Virology 313:588-603.
  39. Carlson, J., M. Lyon, J. Bishop, A. Vaiman, E. Cribiu, J. F. Mornex, S. Brown, D. Knudson, J. DeMartini, and C. Leroux. 2003. Chromosomal distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus proviral sequences in the sheep genome. J Virol 77:9662-9668.
  40. Howe, L., C. Leroux, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro. 2002. Equine infectious anemia virus envelope evolution in vivo during persistent infection progressively increases resistance to in vitro serum antibody neutralization as a dominant phenotype. J Virol 76:10588-10597.
  41. Craigo, J. K., C. Leroux, L. Howe, J. D. Steckbeck, S. J. Cook, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro. 2002. Transient immune suppression of inapparent carriers infected with a principal neutralizing domain-deficient equine infectious anaemia virus induces neutralizing antibodies and lowers steady-state virus replication. J Gen Virol 83:1353-1359.
  42. Leroux, C., J. K. Craigo, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro. 2001. Equine infectious anemia virus genomic evolution in progressor and nonprogressor ponies. J Virol 75:4570-4583.
  43. Tabib, A., C. Leroux, J. F. Mornex, and R. Loire. 2000. Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis in young human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive patients. Coron Artery Dis 11:41-46.
  44. Li, F., C. Leroux, J. K. Craigo, S. J. Cook, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro. 2000. The S2 gene of equine infectious anemia virus is a highly conserved determinant of viral replication and virulence properties in experimentally infected ponies. J Virol 74:573-579.
  45. Gupta, P., C. Leroux, B. K. Patterson, L. Kingsley, C. Rinaldo, M. Ding, Y. Chen, K. Kulka, W. Buchanan, B. McKeon, and R. Montelaro. 2000. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding pattern in semen correlates with the compartmentalization of viral Quasi species between blood and semen. J Infect Dis 182:79-87.
  46. Lichtenstein, D. L., J. K. Craigo, C. Leroux, K. E. Rushlow, R. F. Cook, S. J. Cook, C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro. 1999. Effects of long terminal repeat sequence variation on equine infectious anemia virus replication in vitro and in vivo. Virology 263:408-417.
  47. Cook, R. F., C. Leroux, S. J. Cook, S. L. Berger, D. L. Lichtenstein, N. N. Ghabrial, R. C. Montelaro, and C. J. Issel. 1998. Development and characterization of an in vivo pathogenic molecular clone of equine infectious anemia virus. J Virol 72:1383-1393.
  48. Lyon, M., C. Leroux, T. Greenland, J. Chastang, J. Patet, and J. F. Mornex. 1997. Presence of a unique parainfluenza virus 3 strain identified by RT-PCR in visna-maedi virus infected sheep. Vet Microbiol 57:95-104.
  49. Leroux, C., C. Lerondelle, J. Chastang, and J. F. Mornex. 1997. RT-PCR detection of lentiviruses in milk or mammary secretions of sheep or goats from infected flocks. Vet Res 28:115-121.
  50. Leroux, C., C. J. Issel, and R. C. Montelaro. 1997. Novel and dynamic evolution of equine infectious anemia virus genomic quasispecies associated with sequential disease cycles in an experimentally infected pony. J Virol 71:9627-9639.
  51. Leroux, C., J. Chastang, T. Greenland, and J. F. Mornex. 1997. Genomic heterogeneity of small ruminant lentiviruses: existence of heterogeneous populations in sheep and of the same lentiviral genotypes in sheep and goats. Arch Virol 142:1125-1137.
  52. Leroux, C., T. Greenland, and J. F. Mornex. 1996. Molecular characterization of field isolates of lentiviruses of small ruminants. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 12:427-429.
  53. Leroux, C., S. Vuillermoz, J. F. Mornex, and T. Greenland. 1995. Genomic heterogeneity in the pol region of ovine lentiviruses obtained from bronchoalveolar cells of infected sheep from France. J Gen Virol 76 ( Pt 6):1533-1537.
  54. Leroux, C., G. Cordier, I. Mercier, J. Chastang, M. Lyon, G. Querat, T. Greenland, R. Vigne, and J. F. Mornex. 1995. Ovine aortic smooth muscle cells allow the replication of visna-maedi virus in vitro. Arch Virol 140:1-11.
  55. Mornex, J. F., C. Leroux, T. Greenland, and D. Ecochard. 1994. From granuloma to fibrosis in interstitial lung diseases: molecular and cellular interactions. Eur Respir J 7:779-785.

Modification date: 26 April 2023 | Publication date: 10 January 2018 | By: C Leroux